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Baldwin S-12 Diesel-Electric Switcher Locomotive
The Baldwin S-12 was a 1,200-horsepower (890 kW) diesel-electric locomotive intended for use in yard switching. Utilizing a turbocharged 6-cylinder version of the powerful 606A diesel prime mover, S-12s were known for their "lugging" power, despite being temperamental. Like most Baldwin switchers, the S-12 had AAR Type-A switcher trucks in a B-B wheel arrangement. 451 units were built between 1951 and 1956, when Baldwin left the locomotive market.

Previous models
Baldwin made a number of switchers with similar dimensions and body styles. The first body style, used in VO models, had a slightly pointed nose with a round radiator opening. The second and third body style, almost indistinguishable and used interchangeably, had a flat nose and rectangular radiator opening. Various exhaust stacks were used, and are not an effective spotting feature, except that turbocharged models always had one large stack offset to the side.

The VO-660 was built between April 1939 and May 1946. It was powered by a naturally aspirated six cylinder engine rated at 600-horsepower (450 kW). 142 were built. Baldwin replaced the VO-660 with the model DS-4-4-660 in 1946.

The VO-1000 was built between January 1939 and December 1946. It was powered by a naturally aspirated eight cylinder engine rated at 1,000-horsepower (750 kW). Some had the Batz truck originally developed by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway as a leading truck for steam locomotives. 548 VO-1000s were built.

The DS-4-4-660 was built between 1946 and 1949. It replaced the 600-horsepower (450 kW) VO-660 as the low power companion to the DS-4-4-1000 models. 139 were built.

The DS-4-4-1000 was a 1,000-horsepower (750 kW) model built between 1946 and 1951. The first units (56 locomotives) were powered by an 8-cylinder normally aspirated prime mover, but from 1948 a change was made to a 6-cylinder turbocharged engine. A total of 502 were built.

Original buyers
Quantity:  Road numbers:  Notes:

Baldwin-Lima-Hamiton (demonstrators)
Quantity: 2
Road numbers: 1200–1201
Notes: to Rock Island 758–759

Atlanta and West Point Rail Road
Quantity: 1
Road numbers: 678

Akron and Barberton Belt Railroad

Quantity: 2
Road numbers: 27–27

American Smelting and Refining Company
Quantity: 2
Road numbers: 1954–1955

Apache Railway
Quantity: 1
Road numbers: 600

Armco Steel, Hamilton, Ohio
Quantity: 1
Road numbers: 706

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Quantity: 5
Road numbers: 463–467

Notes: Renumbered 9274–9278

Calumet and Hecla Mining Company
Quantity: 1
Road numbers: 203

Central of Georgia Railway
Quantity: 4
Road numbers: 311–314

Central Railroad of New Jersey
Quantity: 7
Road numbers: 1053–1059

Chicago and North Western Railway
Quantity: 16
Road numbers: 1073–1076, 1106–1109, 1117–1121, 1126–1128

Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad (Milwaukee Road)
Quantity: 21
Road numbers: 1905–1925
Notes: Renumbered 900–914, 920–925 (not in order)

Copper Range Railroad
Quantity: 1
Road numbers: 200

Erie Railroad
Quantity: 12
Road numbers: 617–628

Erie Mining Company
Quantity: 4
Road numbers: 400–403

Great Northern Railway
Quantity: 5
Road numbers: 24–28

Kansas City Southern Railway
Quantity: 4
Road numbers: 1160–1163

Lehigh Valley Railroad
Quantity: 14
Road numbers: 230–243

Michigan Limestone
Quantity: 2
Road numbers: 116–117

Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad
Quantity: 15
Road numbers: 1201–1210

Monongahela Railway
Quantity: 27
Road numbers: 400–426

Missouri Pacific Railroad
Quantity: 20
Road numbers: 9200–9219
Notes: Renumbered 1260–1279

International-Great Northern Railroad (Missouri Pacific)
Quantity: 10
Road numbers: 9220–9226, 9230–9232

St. Louis, Brownsville and Mexico Railway (Missouri Pacific)
Quantity: 3
Road numbers: 9227–9229

Union Railway (Missouri Pacific)
Quantity: 7
Road numbers: 9233–9239

McCloud River Railroad
Quantity: 2
Road numbers: 30–31
Notes: No. 31 built as 800 hp; convertible to 1,200 hp (but never converted)

New Orleans Public Belt Railroad
Quantity: 2
Road numbers: 61–62

New York Central Railroad
Quantity: 21
Road numbers: 9308–9328

Oliver Iron Mining Company
Quantity: 1
Road numbers: 933

Patapsco and Back Rivers Railroad
Quantity: 3
Road numbers: 345–347

Pennsylvania Railroad
Quantity: 87
Road numbers: 8100–8104, 8732–8796, 8976–8993

Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Lines
Quantity: 11
Road numbers: 6017–6021, 6028–6033

Rayonier, Inc.
Quantity: 2
Road numbers: 201–202

Seaboard Air Line Railroad
Quantity: 10
Road numbers: 1462–1465, 1476–1481
Notes: to Seaboard Coast Line Railroad 203–206, 217–222

Sierra Railroad
Quantity: 2
Road numbers: 40, 42

Southern Railway
Quantity: 10
Road numbers: 2290–2299

Southern Pacific Company
Quantity: 56
Road numbers: 1442–1513, 1539–1550

Texas and New Orleans Railroad (Southern Pacific)
Quantity: 3
Road numbers: 105–107

Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company
Quantity: 8
Road numbers: 1200–1207

Tennessee Valley Authority
Quantity: 4
Road numbers: 1–3, 200

Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis
Quantity: 4
Road numbers: 1250–1253

United States Air Force
Quantity: 2
Road numbers: 1841–1842

United States Army
Quantity: 1
Road numbers: 65-11391

United States Navy
Quantity: 13
Road numbers: 65-00292–65-00294, 65-365–65-00374

U.S. Steel, Geneva Steel Works
Quantity: 3
Road numbers: 33–35

U.S. Steel, Homestead Steel Works
Quantity: 1
Road numbers: GE1

U.S. Steel, Morrisville, Pennsylvania Works
Quantity: 9
Road numbers: GE2–GE8, GE17–GE18

Wabash Railroad
Quantity: 5
Road numbers: 305–309

Total Quantity: 451

Surviving units
At least six intact examples of the S-12 are known to survive at railroad museums. SMS Lines operates S-12 No. 301 at the Penn Warner industrial park at Morrisville, Pennsylvania. One unit that was converted from a Baldwin DS-4-4-1000 is in service on the Whitewater Valley Railroad.

Only three intact examples of the VO-660 are known to survive, one of which was sold by the Altoona Railroaders Memorial Museum to SMS Lines to be repaired and put back into operation. The others are Pickens Railway No. 2, built in 1946, and Wyandotte Terminal 103, at the Illinois Railway Museum.

There are at least eight intact examples of the VO-1000 that are known to survive, all of which are owned by museums or historical societies.

Baldwin S-12 Overview
Type and origin
Power type: Diesel-electric
Builder: Baldwin-Lima-Hamiton
Model: S-12
Build date: January 1951–October 1956
Total produced: 451
AAR wheel arrangement: B-B
Gauge: 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Trucks: AAR Type A truck
Wheel diameter: 40 in (1,016 mm)
Minimum curve: 44° (133.47 ft or 40.68 m radius)
Wheelbase: 30 ft 8 in (9.35 m)
Length: 46 ft 6 1⁄4 in (14.18 m)
Width: 9 ft 11 1⁄4 in (3.03 m)
Height: 14 ft (4.2672 m)
Locomotive weight: 235,500 lb (106,800 kg)
Prime mover: 606A
RPM range: 625 rpm max
Engine type: Four-stroke diesel
Aspiration: Turbocharged
Displacement: 1,979 cu in (32.43 l) per cylinder
Displacement: 11,874 cu in (194.58 l) total
Generator: Westinghouse 480DC
Traction motors: (4) Westinghouse 362-D
Cylinders: 6
Cylinder size: 12 3⁄4 in × 15 1⁄2 in (324 mm × 394 mm)
Performance figures
Power output: 1,200 hp (895 kW)
Tractive effort: 57,500 lb (26,100 kg)
Disposition: 6 preserved, remainder scrapped.

Baldwin DS-4-4-660 / DS-4-4-1000
Type and origin
Power type: Diesel-electric
Model: DS-4-4-660

Model: DS-4-4-1000
Build date 660: June 1946 to May 1949
Build date 1000: January 1951 – November 1951
Total produced 660: 139
Total produced 1000: 446
AAR wheel arrangement: B-B
Gauge: 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Trucks: AAR Type A truck
Wheel diameter: 36 in (914 mm)
Minimum curve: 44° (133.47 ft (40.68 m) radius)
Wheelbase: 30 ft 8 in (9.35 m)
Length: 46 ft 6 1⁄4 in (14.18 m)
Width: 9 ft 11 1⁄4 in (3.03 m)
Height: 14 ft (4.27 m)
Locomotive weight 660: 196,600 lb (89,200 kg)
Locomotive weight 1000: 230,000 lb (100,000 kg)
Prime mover 660: Baldwin 606NA
Prime mover 660: 1000: 608NA later 606SC
RPM range: 625 rpm max.
Engine type 606: Straight-6 Four-stroke diesel
Engine type 608: Straight-8 Four-stroke diesel
Aspiration 606NA and 608NA: Natural
Aspiration 606SC: Turbocharged
Displacement: 1,979 cu in (32.43 l) per cylinder
Displacement: 606: 11,874 cu in (194.58 l) total
Displacement: 608: 15,832 cu in (259.44 l) total
Generator: Westinghouse 480 DC
Traction motors: (4) Westinghouse 362-D
Cylinder:s 6
Cylinder size: 12 3⁄4 in × 15 1⁄2 in (324 mm × 394 mm)
Locomotive brake: Air
Train brakes: Air
Performance figures
Power output 660: 660 hp (492 kW)
Power output 1000: 1,000 hp (746 kW)
Tractive effort 660: 56,500 lb (25,600 kg)
Tractive effort 1000: 57,500 lb (26,100 kg)
Locale: North America

See also:

Baldwin Diesel Locomotives

Diesel Locomotives

Baldwin Locomotive Works

A preserved Baldwin S-12 at the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania.

By Klaus Nahr - Flickr: 0390 Strasburg - Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, CC BY-SA 2.0,

A preserved Baldwin S-12 at the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania.

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