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Bombardier Inc.
Bombardier Inc. is a Canadian multinational aerospace and transportation company. In the beginning, the company manufactured snowmobiles, over the years it has grown into a large manufacturer of regional airliners, business jets, mass transportation equipment, recreational equipment and a provider of financial services. Bombardier is a Fortune Global 500 conglomerate company.

History
Bombardier was founded by Joseph-Armand Bombardier as L'Auto-Neige Bombardier Limitée (loosely translated to "Bombardier Snow Car Limited") on January 29, 1942, at Valcourt in the Eastern Townships, Quebec. A mechanic who dreamed of building a vehicle that could "float on snow," in 1937 Bombardier designed and produced his first snowmobile in a small Valcourt, Quebec repair shop.

Bombardier's technological breakthrough in the design of bush vehicles came in the mid-1930s when he developed a drive system that revolutionized travel in snow and swampy conditions. In 1937 Bombardier sold 12 B7 snowmobiles  and in 1942, created l'Auto-Neige Bombardier Limitée company.

The first snowmobiles were large, multi-passenger vehicles designed to help people get around during the long winter months. Snowmobiles were used in rural Quebec to take children to school, carry freight, deliver mail, and as ambulances. His invention filled a very particular need in the region and soon business was booming. In 1941 Armand opened a new factory in Valcourt. Then a major setback hit the growing business: the Second World War was well underway and the Canadian government issued wartime rationing regulations. Bombardier customers had to prove that snowmobiles were essential to their livelihood in order to buy one. To keep his business going, Armand shifted his focus and developed vehicles for the military. After the war, Bombardier experienced another setback in 1948 when the Quebec government passed a law requiring all highways and local roads to be cleared of snow; the Bombardier company's sales fell by nearly half in one year. Armand Bombardier therefore decided to diversify his business, first by producing tracked snowplows sized specifically for use on municipal sidewalks (replacing horse-drawn vehicles), then by making all-terrain vehicles for the mining, oil, and forestry industries.

Of note, the machines had removable front skis that could be replaced with front wheels for use on paved or hard surfaces, thus providing greater utility to his large snowmobiles. Production of these machines evolved over time. During 1951, the wooden bodies were replaced with sheet steel and these vehicles were powered by Chrysler flathead six-cylinder engines and 3-speed manual transmissions. In the 1960s, V-8 engines began to appear and during the 1969/1970 production years, the standard round "porthole"-style windows were replaced with larger rectangular windows which allowed more interior light and made them feel less claustrophobic. Following these changes came a changeover to the more reliable Chrysler Industrial 318 engines with the automatic Loadflite transmissions. Production of these machines continued into the mid-1970s.

Bombardier's intentions were to develop a fast, lightweight snowmobile that could carry one or two people. In the early 1950s, Armand set aside his dream to focus on developing his company's other tracked vehicles, but by the end of the decade, smaller, more efficient engines had been developed and were starting to come onto the market. Bombardier resumed his efforts to build a "miniature" snowmobile. He worked alongside his eldest son Germain, who shared his father's mechanical talents. Armand and Germain developed several prototypes of the lightweight snowmobile and finally, the first Bombardier snowmobile went on sale in 1959.

The Ski-Doo snowmobile was originally called the "Ski-Dog" because Bombardier meant it to be a practical vehicle to replace the dogsled for hunters and trappers. By an accident, a painter misinterpreted the name and painted "Ski-Doo" on the first prototype. The public soon discovered that speedy vehicles that could zoom over snow were a lot of fun. Suddenly a new winter sport was born, centered in Quebec. In the first year, Bombardier sold 225 Ski-Doos; four years later, 8,210 were sold. However, Armand was reluctant to focus too much on the Ski-Doo and move resources away from his all-terrain vehicles, vividly remembering his earlier business setbacks that forced him to diversify. Armand slowed down promotion of the Ski-Doo line to prevent it from dominating the other company products, while still allowing him to dominate the snowmobile industry. The snowmobiles produced were of exceptional quality and performance, earning a better reputation than the rival Polaris and Arctic Cat brand of motosleds. In 1975 Bombardier completed the purchase of the Moto-Ski company.

On February 18, 1964,  J. Armand Bombardier died of cancer at age 56. He left behind a thriving business, but also one that had been focused on one person. Armand dominated his company, overseeing all areas of operation. He controlled the small research department, making all the drawings himself. By the time of his death sales of the company had reached C$20 million, the equivalent of C$160 million in 2004 dollars. The younger generation took over, led by Armand's sons and sons-in-law. The young team reorganized and decentralized the company, adopting modern business tactics. The company adopted the latest technological innovation (the computer) to handle inventory, accounts, and billing. Distribution networks were improved and increased, and an incentive program was developed for sales staff.

In 1967 L'Auto-Neige Bombardier Limitée was renamed Bombardier Limited and on January 23, 1969, the company went public, listing on the Montreal and Toronto stock exchanges.

In October 2016, Bombardier Inc. announced to slash up to end 2018, 7,500 jobs or more than 10 percent of  70,900 employees at end of 2015. About a half of job cuts will affect the railway technology unit.

Aerospace
In 1986, Bombardier acquired Canadair after the Canadian government-owned aircraft manufacturing company recorded the largest corporate loss in Canadian history. Shortly thereafter, de Havilland Canada, Short Brothers and Learjet operations were absorbed by the aerospace arm, which now accounts for over half of company revenue. Bombardier's most popular aircraft currently include its Dash 8, CRJ100/200/440, and CRJ700/900/1000 lines of regional airliners. Bombardier also manufactures the CL-415 amphibious water-bomber, the Global Express and the Challenger business jet. Learjet continues to operate as a subsidiary of Bombardier, manufacturing jets under the Learjet marque. The slogan was changed in 2012 from "We Move People" to "Evolution of Mobility."

After some delay in its development of the Bombardier CSeries, the CS100 and CS300 now compete with the smaller aircraft in the Airbus A320 family and the Boeing 737 family. On June 29, 2016 Bombardier delivered the first CSeries CS100 aircraft to Swiss International Air Lines, the launch customer for the new aircraft. The CS300 is the latest plane offered by Bombardier with up to 160 seats.

Railway technology

Bombardier Transportation
Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Canadian firm Bombardier Inc. Bombardier Transportation is one of the world's largest companies in the rail vehicle and equipment manufacturing and servicing industry. The division is headquartered in Berlin, Germany, and has regional offices and major development facilities in Canada (Montreal and Toronto) and the United States (Plattsburgh, New York). Bombardier Transportation has many minor production and development facilities worldwide.

Bombardier Transportation produces a wide range of products including passenger rail vehicles, locomotives, bogies, propulsion and controls, and offers a number of services.

Laurent Troger is the president and chief operating officer of Bombardier Transportation. In January 2011, the company had 34,900 employees, 25,400 of them in Europe, and 60 manufacturing locations around the world.

History
Bombardier Transportation's first order for mass transit rolling stock was in 1974 for the Société de transport de Montréal (STM) (Montreal Transport Authority) to build metro trains for the Montreal Metro.

The core of the Transportation group was formed with the purchase of Montreal Locomotive Works (MLW) in 1975. With that purchase, Bombardier acquired MLW's LRC (Light, Rapid, Comfortable) tilting train design which it produced in the 1980s. The group also purchased Urban Transportation Development Corporation (UTDC) from the Government of Ontario, which had acquired Hawker Siddeley Canada. MLW was sold to General Electric in 1988. GE ended railcar operations in Canada in 1993. Bombardier Transportation continues to operate the railcar operations in Thunder Bay, Ontario. In 1987, Bombardier bought the assets of US railcar manufacturers Budd and Pullman-Standard.

In the late 1980s, Bombardier Transportation gained a manufacturing presence in Europe with the acquisition of a 45% share in BN Constructions Ferroviaires et Métalliques (Brugge (Bruges), Belgium) in 1986, and the acquisition of ANF-Industries (Crespin, France, near the Belgian border) in 1989. In 1990, Procor Engineering Ltd. of Horbury near Wakefield, UK; a manufacturer of bodyshells, was acquired, and renamed Bombardier Prorail.

In 1991, the grouping Bombardier Eurorail was formed consisting of the company's European subsidiaries; BN, ANF-Industrie, Prorail, and BWS. In 1992, the company acquired Mexico's largest railway rolling-stock manufacturer, Concarril, from the Mexican government.

In 1995, Waggonfabrik Talbot KG in Aachen, Germany, and in 1998, Deutsche Waggonbau AG (DWA), and Ateliers de Constructions Mécaniques de Vevey in Vevey, Switzerland, were acquired. DWA encompassed the major portion of the railway equipment industry of the former East Germany ("Kombinat Schienenfahrzeugbau"), with principal sites in Bautzen and Görlitz.

In 2001, Bombardier Transportation acquired Adtranz from DaimlerChrysler, and became by many measurements the Western world's largest rail-equipment manufacturer. The takeover was approved by the EU competition commission subject to a number of minor clauses including the divestment of Bombardier's stake in Adtranz/Stadler joint venture Stadler Pankow GmbH (sold to Stadler Rail), and an agreement to retain Kiepe as a supplier, and ELIN as a partner for a number of years after the acquisition. The addition of ADtranz made Bombardier a manufacturer of locomotives along with its existing product lines of passenger carriages, multiple-unit trains, and trams. With the acquisition of ADtranz, Bombardier also gained competence in the electrical propulsion components business.

After the Adtranz acquisition in 2001, Bombardier Transportation published its core manufacturing strategy for Europe: three sites for the manufacture of trucks (bogies) were to be at Siegen in Germany, Derby (UK), and at the former ANF plant in Crespin (France). Vehicle body manufacturing was to be done at Bautzen and Görlitz (Germany), at the former Kalmar Verkstad plant (Sweden), at the Bombardier's Derby carriage plant, and the former BN Constructions Ferroviaries et Métalliques in Brugge. For final assembly, the company chose the former Waggonfabrik Talbot plant in Aachen and the former LEW Hennigsdorf (nr. Berlin) in Germany, the former Sorefame plant in Amadora, Portugal, and its plants in Derby (UK), Crespin (France), Brugge (Belgium), Kalmar (Sweden) and Pratteln, Switzerland. Additionally a number of plants would have specialized manufacturing roles, including Česká Lípa (Czech Republic) and the Pafawag facility in Poland which would supply parts and welded structures, and sites in Vienna (Austria) and Bautzen (Germany) which would specialize in light rail vehicle (LRV) manufacture whilst double deck trains for the German market would be manufactured in Görlitz. Other sites had their work mandate reduced in scope, or were closed.

In 2004, due to overcapacity in the European passenger train industry, Bombardier announced a restructuring program resulting in the closure of several plants; in the UK, the truck (bogie) production site at Pride Park, Derby, Bombardier Prorail (Wakefield), and a maintenance facility in Doncaster were closed; in mainland Europe, the plants at Pratteln, Kalmar and Amadora were to be closed, as well as plants in Ammendorf and Vetschau in eastern Germany which had already been slated for closure in 2001.

In late 2012, Bombardier announced the closure of the Bombardier Talbot plant in Aachen, and a reduction in workforce in the transportation division of 1,200 people.

The company obtained two major orders in 2014: San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) ordered an additional 365 rail cars from Bombardier in early 2014, to be assembled at Bombardier’s plant in Plattsburgh, New York; Transport for London (United Kingdom) awarded a £1.3 billion contract to provide 65 Aventra trains for Crossrail, as well as the building of a maintenance depot at Old Oak Common.

In May 2014, Bombardier extended its presence in Australia by purchasing a 100% stake in Rail Signalling Service (RSS), an Australian company focused on designing and constructing rail signalling solutions. In Sep 2014 the downsizing and eventual closure of the Maryborough factory was announced, with the factory closing in Dec 2015.

In January 2015, the government of Hungary nationalized the under-utilized Bombardier carriage works at Dunakeszi (Bombardier MÁV Kft. , Hungarian), acquiring a 64.9% stake for $7.8 million.

In May 2015, the parent company Bombardier Inc. announced that it intended to split or spin-off Bombardier Transportation as a separate publicly traded company, while retaining control as the majority owner. Lutz Bertling, president and CEO of Bombardier Transportation stated that a primary motivation for the sell off was to increase the company's financial flexibility, for potential acquisitions or consolidations, allowing the company to better compete with an anticipated Chinese presence in the European market. An IPO was planned for late 2015. In late 2015 the public investor Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec (CDPQ) acquired a 1.5 billion USD stake in Bombardier Transportation in the form of a bond/equity hybrid, with the shares returned to CDPQ dependent on the financial performance of the company. The investment initially representing a 30% stake - a valuation of $5 billion. The sale was required in part to continue the financing of the parent company's C-Series jet, a major cause of a $4.6 billion loss for the parent company in 2015.

In late 2015 the National Railway Company of Belgium awarded a Bombardier/Alstom consortium a large €3.3 billion contract for 1,362 M7 doubledecker passenger rail vehicles, with a value to Bombardier of around €2,1 billion.

In Aug 2016 Bombardier opened a 6,000 square metres (65,000 sq ft) production facility in Isando, Johannesburg, South Africa. The site was specialized for the production of electric traction equipment (Mitrac).

Products and Services
Bombardier’s standard metro vehicles are the mid-sized fully automated and driverless Bombardier Innovia Metro with the option for linear induction motor propulsion or a conventional rotary motor, and the high-capacity Movia Metro, which is powered by conventional motors and can also be fully automated and customized. In addition, Bombardier has produced many custom metro models not based on either model.

Airtrain JFK: Innovia ART 200 (ART Mark II)
Ankara Metro: Modified H-6
BART: 775-car “Fleet of the Future”; contract for 410 cars (Type D and E cars) awarded May 2012
Beijing Subway: Innovia ART 200 (ART Mark II) cars for the Airport Express line
Berlin U-Bahn: H & HK train stocks
Boston Subway: "#3 Red Line" cars (01800 series)
Bucharest Metro: Movia 346 for lines 1,2 and 3
Chicago 'L': 706 new cars under construction
Detroit People Mover: Innovia ART 100 (ART Mark I)
Docklands Light Railway: all rolling stock
Delhi Metro: Broad-gauge Movia trainsets
Gold Coast G: Link: Flexity 2 featuring low floors and having dedicated spaces for wheelchairs, prams and surfboards
Hong Kong MTR: A-Stock
Helsinki Metro: M200
RapidKL: Innovia ART 200 (ART Mark II) cars for the Kelana Jaya Line
Montreal Metro: MR-73, MPM-10 (project leader, with Alstom providing underfloor equipment)
New York City Subway: R62A, R110B, R142, and R179
Shanghai Metro: Movia 456
Singapore MRT: Movia C951 for Downtown MRT Line
Toronto Subway and RT: T1 and TR (based on Movia) subway cars; ICTS/ART Mark I RT cars (Produced by UTDC).
Taipei Rapid Transit System: The extension line of Muzha Line system, which entered official operation on July 4, 2009. Innovia APM 256
London Underground: 2009 Stock (Victoria line), S Stock (subsurface routes)
Rotterdam Metro: Series 5300, Series 5400, Series 5500 (R Stock / RSG3), and 5600 Series (R Stock / SG3)
Vancouver Skytrain: Innovia ART 100, 200 and 300 (ART Mark I, Mark II and Mark III)

Monorails
King Abdullah Financial District in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: 3.6 km INNOVIA Monorail 300
Line 2 (East Express Monorail) São Paulo, Brazil: 24 km line INNOVIA Monorail 300
Carowinds Monorail 1973 - system closed in 1994 and sold to Vidafel Mayan Palace Resort in Acapulco, Mexico but still not in use.
Six Flags Magic Mountain Metro 1971; closed 2001 with cars sold to Herseypark and system dismantled in 2011
Kings Island Action Zone monorail 1974; system removed in 1994
Cal Expo monorail 1968
Hersheypark monorail 1968; now as BlueCross monorail and acquired additional cars from Six Flags Magic Mountain
King's Dominion 1975; dismantled in the 1990s when with Safari Village attraction was closed
Minnesota Zoo's Northern Trail monorail 1979
Miami MetroZoo 1984; system and cars acquired from 1984 Louisiana World Exposition
Walt Disney World Resort 1989 - The Mark VI monorail still in operation today
1984 Louisiana World Exposition; dismantled and sold after fair ended to Miami MetroZoo
Tampa International Airport monorail 1991; system built by Bombardier
Jacksonville Skyway monorail 1997; system built by Bombardier

Trams and light rail vehicles
Cobra
G:link (gold coast tram line)
Eurotram
Flexity Family
Flexity Outlook Cityrunner
Flexity Outlook (Toronto LRT car)
Flexity Freedom (Toronto Eglinton Crosstown LRT and Waterloo Ion LRT)
Flexity Classic
Flexity Swift
Flexity Link (tram-train) BOCLF70
Flexity Berlin
Flexity 2
Incentro
Metropolitan Area Express (Portland, Oregon) (MAX Light Rail) Type 1 LRV in Portland, Oregon (1984-1986)
Variotram (unit used on Helsinki tram network only; the Variotram brand has since passed under ownership of Stadler Rail)

Locomotives
TRAXX electric locomotive
ALP-46 - electric locomotive
ALP-45DP - electro-diesel locomotive
EP10 - electric locomotive
LRC diesel locomotives
HHP-8 - electric locomotive
IORE - electric locomotive
TRAXX - diesel-electric locomotive

Passenger carriages
BiLevel Coach - commuter rail
MultiLevel Coach - commuter rail
Double-deck Coach
Horizon/Comet/Shoreliner coaches - commuter rail
LRC coaches
TwinDexx Double-Deck coach

Regular-speed multiple-unit trains
Aventra - EMU, replacement for the Electrostar
AGC (Autorail à grande capacité) - Dual mode or electric MU regional train
Electrostar - EMU, (see also British Rail Classes 357, 375, 376, 377, 378 and 379)
Highliner - Double deck EMU commuter trains for Metra
IC3 - EMU or DMU
CP2000 (Portuguese Railways Class 3400)
KRL i9000 - In cooperation with INKA (Industri Kereta Api) for KA Commuter Jabodetabek
M7 - EMU commuter train for the Long Island Rail Road and Metro-North Railroad
MR-90 - EMU commuter train for the Agence Metropolitaine de Transport Deux-Montagnes line.
Suburban Multiple Unit and Interurban Multiple Unit trains for Brisbane and South East Queensland
RegioSwinger - tilting DMU
Talent - DMU or EMU regional train
Talent 2 - EMU regional train
Turbostar - DMU counterpart to the Electrostar, (see also British Rail Classes 168, 170, 171 and 172)
VLocity DMU trains for V/Line
Z 50000 "Le Francilien" - EMU commuter train for the Transilien H line
Sprinter Lighttrain - 4 car EMU regional rail trainset for Nederlandse Spoorwegen

High-speed trains
Acela Express (leader of a project in which Alstom is a participant)
InterCityExpress (participant in a Siemens-led project)
JetTrain (experimental)
Regina
Voyager, Super Voyager and Meridian diesel-electric multiple units
Zefiro, trainsets built for the Chinese market, which have a maximum speed of 240 mph (380 kilometres) per hour
AVE S-102 (Talgo-350) and Alvia S-130 (Talgo 250) with Talgo.

People movers
Guided Light Transit (GLT)
Bombardier Innovia

Bombardier also supplies propulsion units, train-control systems, bogies, and other parts, and maintains train fleets.

Services
In addition to manufacturing a wide variety of passenger rail vehicles and locomotives, Bombardier Transportation provides services for commuter train providers.

Maintenance: Bombardier Transportation has several maintenance contracts for the servicing of commuter trains. This includes fuelling, storage, train washing and upkeep. Some of its key clients are GO Transit, MARC Train, FrontRunner and Metrolink.
Train operation: Bombardier Transportation operates a number of commuter and light rail systems under contract with various transit agencies. It has been the operator for six of the seven GO Transit commuter train lines in Ontario since 2008. As of February 2015, It now operates all GO Transit rail train lines. In 2015, it also began the operation of the Union-Pearson Express airport link in Toronto. The company also operates a number of airport people-mover systems, typically systems it built, such as the AirTrain JFK and AirTrain Newark in New York City under contract with the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.

From 2012/2013, the Savli factory (India) is also planned to assemble Electro-Motive Diesel products for Asian customers.

Facilities
Bombardier Transportation has production facilities or product development in:

Africa:
 South Africa: Traction converter equipment factory at Isando, opened 2016.

Asia:
 India: Movia-car manufacturing and electrical component manufacture in Savli, Vadodara,[6] Gujarat.
 People's Republic of China: Joint ventures with native companies Bombardier Sifang-Power (Qingdao) transportation Ltd., Changchun Bombardier railway vehicles Co. Ltd., Bombardier CPC propulsion systems Ltd.
 Thailand: BTS Skytrain, Bangkok.

Europe:
 Austria: Sites include Bombardier Wien Schienenfahrzeuge (former Lohner-Werke)
 Belgium: Passenger vehicles, at former BN Constructions Ferroviaries et Métalliques plant
 Czech Republic: freight rolling stock
 Denmark: Continues production of IC3 "flexiliner" passenger multiple units.
 France: Public transport - mass transit, trolleybuses, metros, at former ANF Industrie plant
 Germany: Major facilities for production of mass transit, regional, and high speed passenger trains. Control systems. Diesel  and electric locomotive manufacture. Sites include :

  Former LEW Hennigsdorf nr. Berlin
  Former Henschel locomotive works in Kassel
  Former ABB Werk-Sued Mannheim - rail vehicle drive and control systems; passenger and signalling systems; inductive charging (PRIMOVE); as well as project management, sales and fleet management, and others.
 Hungary
 Italy: Production site for FS Class E.464 at former Tecnomasio plant in Vado Ligure
 Norway: Servicing of Adtranz products NSB Class 73 and GMB Class 71 built at former Adtranz factory in Strømmen, also manufactures NSB Class 93
 Poland: (Bombardier Transportation Polska), includes manufacturing site in Wrocław (former Pafawag factory), Katowice, Łódź and Warsaw.
 Romania: Underground trains in Bucharest, mass transport.
 Spain: Trapagaran
 Sweden: Production, engineering, development. Also manufactures Regina EMUs.
  Switzerland: Research and design - propulsion and bogies, also manufacture of high capacity (double decker) passenger vehicles. Sites include former Ateliers de Constructions Mécaniques de Vevey in Villeneuve
 United Kingdom: Derby Litchurch Lane Works - Manufacturing Turbostar and Electrostar passenger multiple units and London Underground Stock.

North America:
 Canada: Engineering facilities in Saint-Bruno, Quebec and Millhaven, Ontario); manufacturing facilities in Thunder Bay, Ontario (Fort William) and La Pocatière.
 Mexico: Sahagun (former Concarril factory) - engineering and production site.
 United States: Manufacturing Plattsburgh, New York and former Adtranz(originally Westinghouse Electric) facility in West Mifflin, Pennsylvania.

Oceania:
 Australia: Bombardier Transportation Australia Ltd - Dandenong, Melbourne, Victoria and Milton, Brisbane, Queensland.

South America:
 Brazil: Monorail manufacturing facility in Hortolandia São Paulo state.

Legal issues
Deutsche Bahn
In early 2013, Deutsche Bahn announced that it was suing Bombardier for €350 million because of some serious defects in trains used on the suburban S-Bahn rail network in Berlin. This was in addition to the €160 million it was asking for from Bombardier because of problems with more than 200 regional trains operating in southern Germany and problems with the brakes in regional and local trains in Munich. The matter was settled out of court in March 2015. Lutz Bertling, head of Bombardier's transportation division at the time, confirmed the two firms had come to an agreement, saying: "The settlement is a positive signal for our future cooperation."

Everline
In January 2015, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) reported that South Korea's Special Investigation Unit for anti-corruption produced a report accusing Bombardier Transportation of corruption in the pursuit of the 2004 contract to build an 18 km elevated Light Rapid Transit (LRT) rail system called the Everline connecting the Giheung Station on the Bundang (Yellow Line) of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway system to a large amusement park named Everland, via Yongin, the 12th largest city in South Korea, about 30 km from central Seoul.

The investigation report alleges that Bombardier provided gifts and trips to Canada for civil servants and politicians involved in the contract decision, which was based on revenue expected from an inflated estimate of 180,000 passengers per day using the service. It also alleges that Bombardier created a $2-million slush fund for the Canadian citizen Kim Hak-Pil, a high-ranking Bombardier executive in South Korea. Bombardier has consistently denied the corruption allegations, stating that "They were not pleasure trips. There is a need to convince the people that our technology works well.... If it had been corruption, they would have charged us." The statute of limitations has now expired, due to lack of evidence according to Bombardier.

Everline operation has been financially troubled since construction was completed in 2010. The system remained dormant until service began in 2013 while the line owner successfully negotiated with the city of Yongin a minimum revenue guarantee of 29.5 billion KRW per year regardless of passenger load. This is said to be a serious burden for the city because ridership is reported to have risen to only about 20,000 passengers per day on the 30 carriages, or about a quarter of the maximum possible capacity of the fleet in a 12-hour day. A reason suggested for this is the fare of 1100 KRW (about US$1 in 2015); it is impossible to pay for Everline trips via a transfer surcharge on a connecting subway ticket. A 2014 web page of a Seoul tour service retailer makes no mention of the Everline among the suggested modes of bus transport between Seoul and Everland. A lawyer who filed legal action on behalf of the citizens of Yongin is reported to have provided details about Bombardier's pursuit of the contract. He said that "between 2003 and 2005, Bombardier funded three luxurious trips to Canada to each of 37 people" including 18 Yongin city councillors on so-called "LRT field trips".

Toronto Transit Commission
On October 16, 2015, the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) announced that it has asked its board to consider legal action against Bombardier. TTC staff is recommending that the TTC board “commence legal action, or make a claim allowed for already in the contract, of $50 million for late delivery” against Bombardier. Bombardier had committed to delivering 67 custom-built Flexity Outlook streetcars to the TTC by October 2015 for its streetcar system, but only 10 were in service at the time.

On October 28, 2015, the TTC board voted in favour of a lawsuit against Bombardier "for at least $50 million to recoup lost costs", according to Chair Josh Colle, because of the company's failure to deliver the additional new streetcars.

Financial services
Bombardier Capital (BC) was the Bombardier division in charge of financial services. From 1973, when it was based in Colchester, Vermont, it offered financial services such as lending, leasing, and asset-management throughout the Americas. In 2001, BC restricted its loan activity to existing customers. The company, which began transitioning some services to Jacksonville, Florida in 1997, ceased taking on new consumer loans in 2001, focusing instead on loans to retailers and gradually downsizing. In November 2004, Bombardier's credit evaluation was downgraded by Moody's from "moderate credit risk" (Baa3) to "questionable credit quality" (Ba2), a below investment grade rating which impacted Bombardier Capital, although the company's transportation division was unaffected. In 2005, Bombardier sold the Inventory Finance Division of BC to GE Commercial Finance.

Divestitures
Military
Bombardier used to be a major Canadian defence contractor. With the latest restructuring, the company sold off nearly all of its military-related work in Canada. Military Aviation Services was sold to SPAR Aerospace and land-based defence products made by Urban Transportation Development Corporation ceased operations as Bombardier moved away from non-aviation defence products.

Recreational products
On 27 August 2003, Bombardier, Inc. announced the sale of its BRP (Recreational Products) unit to a group of investors: Bain Capital (50%), Bombardier Family (35%) and Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec (15%) for $875 million. As part of the deal, BRP retained rights to the sprocket logo, which it subsequently modified. Its snowcats and snowmobiles dated back to the origins of the company; current brands are Ski-Doo and Lynx. Bombardier Recreational Products has also become well known for its Sea-Doo personal watercraft division which also features jet-powered sport boats. Bombardier also makes all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). In 2006, the Bombardier ATV was rebranded as Can-Am. Can-Am was the name of the line of dirt bikes it produced in the 1980s which used high-tech engines featuring Rotax Automatic Variable Exhaust (RAVE) valving to create peak power at a wider range of RPMs. The bikes were shelved but technology tweaks re-emerged in the company's Ski-Doo snowmobiles (beginning with the 1989 model year Ski-Doo Mach 1). Many of today's snowmobiles produced by the company feature proprietary engineering by BRP's Rotax brand engine production plant located in Austria. BRP's Can-Am product is among the high tech recreational vehicles which include the Can-Am Spyder, a three-wheel roadster with a rear-drive wheel and featuring a vehicle stability system (VSS), anti-lock braking system (ABS) and other safety and electronic vehicle control enhancements as certified by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).

Public transport bus
In the late 1970s in Ireland, Córas Iompair Éireann (now Bus Éireann and Dublin Bus) commissioned a range of single and double decker buses to be designed and produced. The prototypes were devised in Germany and production was carried out in Shannon, Co. Clare, Ireland. A total of 51 express coaches (KE type) and 366 double deck buses (KD) were assembled at this facility between 1980 and 1983. They remained in service until 1997 and 2000 respectively. Some surviving examples are now exhibits at the National Transport Museum of Ireland in Howth, Co. Dublin.

Bombardier Museums
The Bombardier Museum is a large modern museum in Valcourt, Quebec dedicated to the life of Joseph-Armand Bombardier, the snowmobile, and the industry he helped create. Opened in 1971, with substantial renovations in 1990, the museum is professionally curated and features a wide array of Ski-Doos, other industrial designs, and a selection of related books, booklets and other items of interest to enthusiasts.

Also of note at the museum is the original garage "factory" that was the genesis of the Bombardier organization. The garage was carefully removed from its original location in Valcourt and moved to its present site at the museum, which is located blocks away from the present-day Bombardier Recreational Products factory.

MBTA Red Line train (Boston Subway).

Bombardier Inc. Overview
Type: Public
Traded as: TSX: BBD.A, BBD.B; OTCQX: BDRBF; S&P/TSX 60 component
Industry: Aerospace, Defense, Railways
Founded: Valcourt, Quebec, Canada (29 January 1942
Founder: Joseph-Armand Bombardier
Headquarters: Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Area served: Worldwide
Key people:

Pierre Beaudoin (Bombardier Inc. Chairman)
Alain Bellemare (Bombardier Inc. CEO)
Laurent Troger (Bombardier Transportation President and COO)
Products: Aircraft, trains, trams
Revenue: CAD$ 21.84 billion (2013), (US$ 18.2 Billion)
Net income: CAD$ 4.08 billion (2013), (US$ 3.4 Billion)
Total assets: CAD$ 83.64 billion (2013), (US$ 69.7 Billion)
Number of employees: 65,698 (2011)
Website www.bombardier.com

LRC No. 6905 at Ottawa, Ontario during the initial Nightstar test runs, in the summer of 2000. This was one of the last runs of the LRC locomotives.

By Emdx at en.wikipedia, CC BY 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17207152

Classic Streamliners - TRAIN​CYCLOPEDIA

LRC #6905 at Ottawa, Ontario during the initial Nightstar test runs, in the summer of 2000. This was one of the last runs of the LRC locomotives.

MBTA Red Line train (Boston Subway).

By Adam E. Moreira - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=786693

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NJ Transit Multilevel train 6651, led by No. 7014, stops at the Millburn Station. All vehicles on this train are manufactured by Bombardier.

MARC No. 4915, a Bombardier–Alstom HHP-8 at Odenton in 2014.

By Ryan Stavely - MARC 438 #2, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=34678992

MARC No. 4915, a Bombardier–Alstom HHP-8 at Odenton in 2014.

NJ Transit Multilevel train 6651, led by No. 7014, stops at the Millburn Station. All vehicles on this train are manufactured by Bombardier.

By Adam E. Moreira - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3847017

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