Classic Streamliners - TRAIN​CYCLOPEDIA

1901–1945
Following the purchase of the Burlington Railroad by GN and NP, expansion continued. In 1908, CB&Q purchased both the Colorado & Southern and Fort Worth & Denver Railways, giving it access south to Dallas and the Gulf of Mexico ports in Houston and Galveston. It also extended its reach south in the Mississippi Valley region by opening up a new line from Concord, Illinois south to Paducah, Kentucky. It was during this period that the railroad was at its largest, exceeding just over 12,000 route miles in 14 states by the 1920s. With the First World War having the same effect on the railroad as on all other railroads, during the 1920s, the Burlington Route had an increasingly heavy amount of equipment flooding the yards. With the advent of the Great Depression, CB&Q held a portion of this for scrap. Despite the decrease of passengers, it was during this time that the railroad introduced the famed Zephyrs.

In 1929, CB&Q created a subsidiary, the Burlington Transportation Company, to operate intercity buses in tandem with its railway network. In 1936, the company would become one of the founding members of the Trailways Transportation System, and still provides intercity service to this day as Burlington Trailways.

As early as 1897, the railroad had been interested in alternatives to steam power, namely, internal-combustion engines. The railroad's shops in Aurora had built an unreliable three-horsepower distillate motor in that year, but it was hugely impractical (requiring a massive 6,000-pound flywheel) and had issues with overheating (even with the best metals of the day, its cylinder heads and liners would warp and melt in a matter of minutes) and was therefore impractical. Diesel engines of that era were over-sized, and were best suited for low-speed, continuous operation. None of that would do in a railroad locomotive; however, there was no diesel engine suitable for that purpose then.

Always innovating, the railroad both purchased "doodlebug" gas-electric combine cars from Electro-Motive Corporation and built their own, sending them out to do the jobs of a steam locomotive and a single car. With good success in that field, and after having purchased and tried a pair of General Electric steeple-cab switchers powered by distillate engines, Burlington president Ralph Budd requested of the Winton Engine Company a light, powerful diesel engine that could stand the rigors of continuous, unattended daily service.

The experiences of developing these engines can be summed up shortly by General Motors Research vice-president Charles Kettering: "I do not recall any trouble with the dip stick." Ralph Budd, accused of gambling on diesel power, chirped that "I knew that the GM people were going to see the program through to the very end. Actually, I wasn't taking a gamble at all." The manifestation of this gamble was the eight-cylinder Winton 8-201A diesel, a creature no larger than a small Dumpster, that powered the Burlington Zephyr (built 1934) on its record run and opened the door for developing the long line of diesel engines that has powered Electro-Motive locomotives for the past seventy years.

1945–1970
After the Second World War, CB&Q was inundated with the overworked steam locomotives existent in a fleet that was already beginning to dieselize. Having expanded its dieselization program rapidly, steam power was slowly put out to pasture, and on September 28, 1959, the last steam-powered commuter train from Chicago rolled to a stop in Downers Grove, marking the end of steam operations on the railroad.

As the financial situation of American railroading continued to decline through the 1960s, the Burlington Railroad merged with the Great Northern, Northern Pacific, and the Spokane, Portland and Seattle railroads on March 2, 1970 to form the Burlington Northern, a merger once dreamed of by Great Northern founder James J. Hill.

The Burlington Zephyrs

The railroad operated a number of streamlined passenger trains known as the Zephyrs which were one of the most famous and largest fleets of streamliners in the United States. The Burlington Zephyr, the first American diesel-electric powered streamlined passenger train, made its noted "dawn-to-dusk" run from Denver, Colorado, to Chicago, Illinois, on May 26, 1934. On November 11, 1934, the train was put into regularly scheduled service between Lincoln, Nebraska, and Kansas City, Missouri. Although the distinctive, articulated stainless steel trains were well known, and the railroad adopted the "Way of the Zephyrs" advertising slogan, they did not attract passengers back to the rails en masse, and the last one was retired from revenue service with the advent of Amtrak.

The Zephyr fleet included:
Pioneer Zephyr (Lincoln–Omaha–Kansas City).
Twin Cities Zephyr (Chicago–Minneapolis-St. Paul).
Mark Twain Zephyr (St. Louis–Burlington).
Denver Zephyr (Chicago–Denver).
Nebraska Zephyr (Chicago–Lincoln).
Sam Houston Zephyr (Houston–Dallas-Ft. Worth).
Ozark State Zephyr (Kansas City–St. Louis).
General Pershing Zephyr (Kansas City–St. Louis).
Silver Streak Zephyr (Kansas City–Omaha–Lincoln).
Ak-Sar-Ben Zephyr (Kansas City–Omaha–Lincoln).
Zephyr Rocket (St. Louis–Burlington–Minneapolis-St. Paul), jointly with Rock Island.
Texas Zephyr (Denver–Dallas-Ft. Worth).
American Royal Zephyr (Chicago–Kansas City).
Kansas City Zephyr (Chicago–Kansas City).
California Zephyr (Chicago–Oakland): Chicago–Denver handled by CB&Q; Denver–Salt Lake City by Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad; Salt Lake City–Oakland by Western Pacific Railroad.

Other named passenger trains which operated on the Burlington included:
Adventureland (Kansas City-Billings).
Aristocrat (Chicago–Denver): replaced the Colorado Limited.
Ak-Sar-Ben (Chicago–Lincoln): replaced Nebraska Limited and replaced by Ak-Sar-Ben Zephyr.
American Royal (Chicago–Kansas City): replaced by the American Royal Zephyr.
Atlantic Express (Seattle-Tacoma-Chicago): jointly with Northern Pacific Railway.
Black Hawk (Chicago–Twin Cities overnight).
Buffalo Bill (Denver-Yellowstone) Seasonal tri-weekly service between Denver, Colorado and Yellowstone National Park via Cody, Wyoming.
Chicago Limited (Chicago-Denver).
Coloradoan (Chicago–Denver): replaced by the Aristocrat.
Denver Limited (Denver-Chicago).
Exposition Flyer (Chicago–Oakland) in conjunction with D&RGW and WP prior to the launching of the California Zephyr.
Empire Builder: handled Great Northern Railway's flagship between Chicago and Minneapolis.
Fast Mail (Chicago–Lincoln).
Mainstreeter: handled the Northern Pacific Railway's secondary transcontinental between Chicago and Minneapolis.
Nebraska Limited (Chicago–Lincoln): replaced by the Ak-Sar-Ben.
North Coast Limited: handled Northern Pacific Railway's flagship between Chicago and Minneapolis.
North Pacific Express (Chicago-Seattle-Tacoma): jointly with Northern Pacific Railway.
Overland Express (Chicago-Denver). This train, along with The Aristocrat and the Colorado Limited, were promoted as companion trains to the streamlined Denver Zephyr.
Shoshone: (Denver-Billings) operated between Denver, Colorado and Billings, Montana. Referred to affectionately as "The Night Crawler".
Western Star: handled the Great Northern Railway's secondary transcontinental between Chicago and Minneapolis.
Zephyr Connection: (Denver-Cheyenne) offered daytime service along Colorado's Front Range between Denver, Colorado and Cheyenne, Wyoming.

The California Zephyr is still operated daily today by Amtrak as trains Five (westbound) and Six (eastbound). Another Amtrak train, the Illinois Zephyr, is a modern descendant of the Kansas City Zephyr and the American Royal Zephyr services.

Innovations
The Burlington Railroad was a leader in innovation; among its firsts were use of the printing telegraph (1910), train radio communications (1915), streamlined passenger diesel power (1934) and vista-dome coaches (1945). In 1927, the railroad was one of the first to use Centralized Traffic Control (CTC) and by the end of 1957 had equipped 1,500 miles of its line.

The railroad had one of the first hump classification yards at its Cicero Avenue Yard in Chicago, allowing an operator in a tower to line switches remotely and allowing around-the-clock classification.

Cities platted by the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad
Massena, Iowa
Pacific Junction, Iowa

See also:
Burlington Northern

BNSF

Railroads of the U.S.A.

Postcard photo of a Burlington EMD E5 locomotive pulling a freight train in Colorado. These locomotives were built circa 1940-1941 and were originally used on the passenger Zephyr service.

A Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Slideshow.

The Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad
The Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad Company (reporting mark CBQ) was a Class I railroad that operated in the Midwest. Often referred to as the Burlington or as the Q, the Burlington Route served a large area that included the states of Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Wisconsin and Wyoming. Subsidiaries Colorado and Southern Railway, Fort Worth and Denver Railway added to the Burlington’s extensive rail system that in 1950 comprised almost 11,000 miles of road.  Headquartered in Chicago, the company’s main connections were in Chicago, Minneapolis-St. Paul, St. Louis, Kansas City and Denver. The CB&Q  proudly used the ad slogans "Everywhere West", "The Way West", and "Way of the Zephyrs".

In May of 1967, the CB&Q reported 19,565 million net ton-miles of freight and 723 million passenger miles. The corresponding totals for Colorado and Southern were 1,100 million net ton-miles of freight and 10 million passenger miles; the Fort Worth and Denver reported 1,466 million net ton-miles of freight and 13 million passenger miles. In 1970, the railroad merged into the Burlington Northern.

History
1848 - 1882
The earliest predecessor of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy, the Aurora Branch Railroad, was chartered by act of the Illinois General Assembly on October 2, 1848. The charter was obtained by citizens of Aurora and Batavia, Illinois, who were concerned that the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad would bypass their towns in favor of West Chicago on its route; at the time, that was the only line running west from Chicago. The Aurora Branch was built from Aurora, through Batavia, to Turner Junction in what is now West Chicago. The line was built with older strap rail and minimal, if any, grading. Using a leased locomotive and cars, the Aurora Branch ran passenger and freight trains from Aurora to Chicago via its own line from Aurora to Turner Junction and one of G&CU's two tracks east from there to Chicago. G&CU required the Aurora Branch to turn over 70 percent of their revenue per ton-mile handled on that railroad; as a result, in the mid-1850s, surveys were ordered to determine the best route for a railroad line to Chicago.

The line from Aurora to Chicago was built through the fledgling towns of Naperville, Lisle, Downers Grove, Hinsdale, Berwyn, and the west side of Chicago. It was opened in 1862, and passenger and freight service began. Regular commuter train service started in 1863 and remains operational to this day, making it the oldest surviving regular passenger service in Chicago. Both the original Chicago line, and to a much lesser extent, the old Aurora Branch right of way, are still in regular use today by the Burlington Railroad's present successor BNSF Railway.

With a steady acquisition of locomotives, cars, equipment, and trackage, the Burlington Route was able to enter the trade markets in 1862. From that year to date, the railroad and its successors have paid dividends continuously, and never run into debt or defaulted on a loan—one of only a few Class I U.S. railroads for which this is true.

After extensive trackwork was planned, the Aurora Branch changed its name to the Chicago and Aurora Railroad in June 1852, and to Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad in 1856, and shortly reached its two other namesake cities, Burlington, Iowa and Quincy, Illinois. In 1868 CB&Q completed bridges over the Mississippi River both at Burlington, Iowa, and Quincy, Illinois giving the railroad through connections with the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad (B&MR) in Iowa and the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad (H&StJ) in Missouri. The first Railway Post Office was inaugurated on the H&StJ to sort mail on the trains way across Missouri, passing the mail to the Pony Express upon reaching the Missouri River at St. Joseph, Missouri.

B&MR continued building west into Nebraska as a separate company, the Burlington & Missouri River Rail Road, founded in 1869. During the summer of 1870 it reached Lincoln, the newly designated capital of Nebraska and by 1872 it reached Kearney, Nebraska. That same year B&MR across Iowa was absorbed by CB&Q. By the time the Missouri River bridge at Plattsmouth, Nebraska was completed the B&MR in Nebraska was well on its way to the Mile High city of Denver, Colorado. That same year, the Nebraska B&MR was purchased by CB&Q, which completed the line to Denver by 1882.

1882–1901
Burlington's rapid expansion after the American Civil War was based upon sound financial management, dominated by John Murray Forbes of Boston and assisted by Charles Elliott Perkins. Perkins was a powerful administrator who eventually forged a system out of previously loosely held affiliates, virtually tripling Burlington's size during his presidency from 1881 to 1901.

Ultimately, Perkins believed the Burlington Railroad must be included into a powerful transcontinental system. Though it as far west as Denver and Billings, Montana, it had failed to reach the Pacific Coast during the 1880s and 1890s, when construction was less expensive. Though approached by E. H. Harriman of the Union Pacific Railroad, Perkins felt his railroad was a more natural fit with James J. Hill's Great Northern Railway. With its river line to the Twin Cities, the Burlington Route formed a natural connection between Hill's home town (and headquarters) of St. Paul, Minnesota, and Chicago. Moreover, Hill was willing to meet Perkins' $200-a-share asking price for the Burlington's stock. By 1900, Hill's Great Northern, in conjunction with the Northern Pacific Railway, held nearly 100 percent of Burlington's stock.

In 1901 a rebuffed Harriman tried to gain an indirect influence over Burlington by launching a stock raid on Northern Pacific. Though Hill managed to fend off this attack on his nascent system, it led to the creation of the Northern Securities Company, and later, the Northern Securities Co. v. United States ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court.

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Postcard photo of a Burlington EMD E5 locomotive pulling a freight train in Colorado. These locomotives were built circa 1940-1941 and were originally used on Zephyr passenger service.

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