Niles Canyon Railway
The Niles Canyon Railway (NCRy) is a heritage railway running through Niles Canyon, between Sunol and the Niles district of Fremont in the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area, in California, United States. The railway is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Niles Canyon Transcontinental Railroad Historic District. The railroad is operated and maintained by the Pacific Locomotive Association which preserves, restores and operates historic railroad equipment. The NCRy features public excursions with both steam and diesel locomotives along a well-preserved portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad. The Golden Gate Railroad Museum moved its collection from San Francisco to the NCRy in 2007 for storage and limited operations after their home at Hunters Point Naval Shipyard was shut down for redevelopment.
The Niles Canyon Railway operates along a portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad constructed in the 1860s. The rail line through Niles Canyon was amongst the earliest to be built in California and provided the first rail connection between San Francisco Bay and the rest of the nation.
The Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 authorized the Central Pacific Railroad and the Union Pacific Railroad to build the transcontinental railroad between the Missouri River and the waters of the Pacific. For various reasons, the Central Pacific Railroad reached an agreement with the first Western Pacific Railroad (1862-1870) (not related to the later company of same name) to build the westernmost portion of the line connecting the Central Pacific in Sacramento to San Jose via Stockton and Livermore. Trains could then continue to San Francisco via the San Francisco & San Jose Rail Road which was completed in 1864.
By 1866, the Western Pacific had built 20 miles (32 km) of track north and east from San Jose into what was then known as Alameda Cañon, when disputes between the railroad's backers and contractors stalled construction. The Central Pacific acquired the moribund Western Pacific as completion of the transcontinental railroad neared. Construction of the Western Pacific was revived by crews building south from Sacramento and over Livermore Pass (now Altamont Pass) to connect to the already completed track in Alameda Cañon. The new line was completed from Sacramento to San Jose and a waterfront terminal in Alameda in September 1869. This was just four months after the Central Pacific and Union Pacific met at Promontory Summit, Utah. Soon after, a more substantial terminal was established at the Oakland Long Wharf, from which ferries connected to San Francisco. These ferries continued to be the final link for passengers to San Francisco until 1958.
When built, the rail line through Niles Canyon was the primary route for overland traffic to and from the San Francisco Bay. A shorter rail line between Oakland and Sacramento was established via the California Pacific Railroad and Benicia by 1879. As a result, the original line became less used due to its longer route and its steep grade over Livermore Pass (known today as Altamont Pass). Passenger and freight trains on the line was reduced to local service only. This secondary status was maintained until the early 20th century when the Southern Pacific Railroad (successor to the Central Pacific) came under the leadership of E. H. Harriman. Freight traffic in and out of San Francisco had become too heavy for the ferries across the bay and across the Carquinez Strait to handle. An all land route via San Jose and Niles Canyon was available, but was overly circuitous. Several major capital improvement projects undertaken during this era, including the completion of the Coast Line and the construction of the Dumbarton Bridge, revitalized the original line through Niles Canyon. Steel bridges replaced the covered timber bridges at Farwell and Dresser and the small railroad town of Niles became an important junction as freight from the San Francisco Peninsula and produce from the Santa Clara and Salinas Valleys traveled through the canyon to points east. Despite these improvements, the few rebuilding programs by the railroad left the Niles Canyon line with many of its original cut-stone bridge abutments, culverts, and retaining walls from the Western Pacific's original right of way. Many of these constructions can still be seen today.
The decline in San Francisco's status as a port with the advent of containerization, combined with the movement of produce traffic to the highways once again left the railroad through Niles Canyon with little business. Southern Pacific ceased its operations through the canyon in 1984, and deeded the land to Alameda County. Commercial rail operations through Niles Canyon now operate on a newer line, which is owned by Union Pacific (formerly Western Pacific) and also used by the Altamont Commuter Express (ACE) commuter train.
The Pacific Locomotive Association leased the right of way from the county and began working to reconstruct the track in 1987. The Niles Canyon Railway ran its first passenger train from Sunol on May 21, 1988. Passenger trains once again connected Sunol and Niles starting on April 9, 2006. The organization continues its work to extend and maintain the track along the line; restore its collection of railroad equipment; and operate historic demonstration trains for the benefit of the public. They plan to eventually extend their demonstration train service to Pleasanton, California.
Niles Canyon Transcontinental Railroad Historic District
The railway, its right-of-way, and its associated structures were listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Niles Canyon Transcontinental Railroad Historic District on October 13, 2010. The railway was determined to be eligible under National Register Criterion C to reflect the engineering significance of the resources as fine examples of historic period railroad design, and under Criterion A to reflect its association with the construction of the Original Transcontinental Railroad and its role as an important freight railway in the early part of the 20th century.
The Period of Significance was identified as spanning from 1865 to 1958. This period was chosen to encompass the commencement of construction of this portion of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1865 to the end of its significance as a major transportation corridor after World War II and the final incorporation of the Central Pacific Railroad into the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1958.
The historic district includes 108 contributing resources and 39 non-contributing resources. Contributing resources consist of every object within the railroad's right of way constructed between 1865 and 1958. These include the track itself, the graded roadbed, culverts, bridges, signals, telegraph and signal pole lines, structures, signs, and fences. Non-contributing resources consist of things built or altered since 1958, and include non-historic track, buildings, a gas pipeline, and a fiber optic line.
The primary contributing resources of this Historic District include the following:
Arroyo de la Laguna Bridge
The railway's 2013 regular scheduled excursions run on the first and third Sundays each month in January–March and September–October; first and third Saturday and Sunday each month, April–August. Several trips are run, generally alternating between steam locomotives and diesel locomotives, with both open and enclosed passenger cars. See the railway's website for exact schedules and for special trains.
Group charters are also available, from a single caboose to an entire train. During the Christmas period, special "Train of Lights" trips run.
Passengers may board at the western end of the line in Fremont, at the Niles station site adjacent to the Union Pacific Coast Line on which Amtrak operates their Capitol Corridor and Coast Starlight services. The unrelated Niles Depot Museum displays model railroads and railroad artifacts nearby. Passengers may also board at the 1884 Sunol depot, which is the last surviving example of a Southern Pacific standard Combination Depot No. 7. Future plans for restoration of the historic Sunol Depot include interpretive educational displays.
The Pacific Locomotive Association has 8 steam and 13 diesel locomotives, and over 40 pieces of rolling stock.
Notable steam locomotives:
Name: Quincy Railroad Co. No. 2
Name: Robert Dollar Co. No. 3
Name: Clover Valley Lumber Company No. 4
Name: Pickering Lumber Co No. 5
Name: Pickering Lumber Co No. 12
Name: Sierra Railway No. 30
Name: Southern Pacific 1269
Name: Southern Pacific 2467
Notable diesel locomotives:
Name: Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 462
Name: Oakland Terminal Railway 101
Name: Southern Pacific 1218
Name: Southern Pacific 1423
Name: Southern Pacific 5472
Name: Southern Pacific 5623
Name: Southern Pacific 9010
Name: U.S. Army 1856
Name: U.S. Army 7348
Name: Western Pacific 713
Name: Western Pacific 918D
Niles Canyon Railway Overview
Locale: Alameda County, California, USA
Built by: First Transcontinental Railroad
Original gauge: 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Owned by: Alameda County
Operated by: Pacific Locomotive Association
Reporting mark: NICX
Stations: 2, (plus 1 planned)
Length: 9.2 mi (14.8 km)
Preserved gauge: 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Lease from County and start of reconstruction: 1987
Began operation: 1988
Headquarters: Fremont, California
Official Website: http://www.ncry.org/
Niles Canyon Transcontinental Railroad Historic District Overview
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
U.S. Historic district
Location: Railway corridor from Niles to Pleasanton, CA
Nearest cities: Fremont, Sunol, Pleasanton
Area: Approximately 200 acres
Architectural style: N/A. Other-standard gauge railroad; Other-Warren Truss (bridge); Other-Pratt Truss (bridge); Stick (depot)
NRHP Reference Number: 10000843
Added to NRHP: October 13, 2010
A passenger train pulled by Southern Pacific GP-9 No. 5623 travels east from Niles toward Sunol on the Niles Canyon Railway.
Rrrarch at English Wikipedia [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC BY 2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway No. 462 GE44t Switcher and US Army No. 1856 FM H-12-44.
By Nate Beal (originally posted to Flickr as ATSF 44 tonner) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Route Map of the Niles Canyon Railway
By Rrrarch (talk), © OpenStreetMap contributors, CC-BY-SARrrarch [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
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